The Best Location to See White-rumped Woodpecker!

Some authors have split one of the sub-species of Buff-rumped Woodpecker that lives on Java into full species. It is White-rumped Woodpecker (Meiglyptes tristis).

Basically, at a glance, the two species are relatively the same in size, body shape, call, habits, habitat etc.

Based on the morphological difference in which White-rumped Woodpecker has dominantly black abdominal feathers, stony-white barring and spotting on all areas of plumage, white rump, dense black-and-white barring continuing around eyes and male have a slightly brighter red moustachial stripe than Buff-rumped Woodpecker males.

According to HBW and birdlife, this bird’s threat status is endangered. It is estimated that there are only around 1000 – 2499 individuals present and living in certain areas on the island of Java.

Besides that the habitat has been converted and fragmented, on this basis its status is endangered.

A recent survey conducted in several fragmented forests of West Java, found no existence of this bird. In fact, in October 2014 and October 2015 White-rumped Woodpecker was found in one of the national parks in East Java by Agung Sih Kurniawan, et al.

It is interesting to see the distribution map of this ‘black’ woodpecker in some field guides that look like those found only in West Java and a small part of Central Java.

In 2018, we tried to search in Meru Betiri NP, East Java where Agung met with this species.

Me and Heru Fitriadi tried to search for this endemic for 3 days.

We visited many locations such as grass land, the edge of forest, coconut, rubber; and teak plantations.

On the first two days, we failed to find it. Only managed to see Fulvous-breasted Woodpecker which is very abundant in Meru Betiri NP, especially in coconut plantations. Finally, we looked for rangers and local residents to ask for whereabouts and locations to see this.

Adult female White-rumped Woodpecker

Most of them thought what we were looking for was Fulvous-breasted Woodpecker, but there was one local resident who was observant after we showed the difference between White-rumped Woodpecker and the other. He guided us to the last time he met.

On the last afternoon, with him looking for grass for his livestock, we waited in a shelter in the middle of the chinese albizia plantation on the edge of the river.

Every bird that alighted like a woodpecker we scoped straight for almost 1.5 hours.

Until 3:00 p.m. I turned on playback with a feeling of almost despair. Slowly from the back of the shelter there is a voice that is similar to the playback that I play. Initially I thought only the response sound was in the playback, suddenly two woodpeckers flew from behind the shelter to the front.

Suddenly my binoculars aimed at the target, quickly my binoculars lowered and changed to the camera while calling Heru Fitriadi who was looking at the riverbank. I pressed the camera shutter nonstop. This is the bird we were looking for for 3 days at Meru Bert NP, White-rumped Woodpecker.

Heru (left) and local guide sitting on the shelter

Complete, male and female seen together. Both of them respond to my playback sound. His voice is almost no different.

The striking black color on the chest and abdomen makes this bird very frightening.For 2 hours this bird circled around the shelter, until satisfied with observing and taking photos, then at 5.00 pm we decided to go home leaving Meru Betiri NP. So that is the best location in East Java, Indonesia to look at it. If you also want to see them, feel free to contact us.

Bima, Sumbawa Island

Birding in part of Lesser Sunda archipelago that many people, even Indonesian, are still confused with Sumbawa and Sumba, it’s a totally different island!. It lies adjacent to Lombok and west-north of Sumba. Bima is the eastern part of Sumbawa island.

Duration to birding: 3-4 Days.

There are three birding spots to clean up bird list on the Bima area:

1. Madapangga Nature Reserve

TWA Madapangga is located in the west of Bima city with a distance of about 45 Km or takes about 1 hour drive by car. The area of 232 Hectares is administratively in the village of Ndano, Bolo sub-district, Bima district, West Nusa Tenggara Province.

This nature park is a source of water for the dryness of the surrounding area. Residents around the area are very dependent on the river and its springs. In the morning and evening could meet with residents who bathe or wash clothes in the river that is located exactly on the road which connects Bima with Sumbawa city. The topography of this location is generally hilly with a slope of 15 – 40 degrees, only a small part is a relatively flat area with varying heights from 200 to 600 m above sea level.

Birding spots are relatively easy to reach, such as following the loop-track of the camping ground, around the river, and garden of the pool. We tried all those spots while we were there. Elegant Pitta, White-rumped Kingfisher, and Flame-breasted Sunbird are the icons for the area.

2. Degradated forest around Kaowa village

Kaowa, Lambitu, Bima, Sumbawa island

Flores Hawk-eagle often recorded here. Lambitu sub-district 2 hours heading to the east of central Bima city. In this hilly village is widely used as a garden or farm area by residents with the rest of the monsoon forest on each hilltop. Birding spots are located around the village water springs and the edge of forests after farm areas close enough to residents’ houses.

3. Sape

Located at eastern-coast of Bima city, take to 1 hours and 30 minutes (50 Km) drive time from city center. The habitat for looking birds in Sape is around river with dense vegetation. Perfect for looking at Nusa Tenggara Paradise Flycatcher. Also around coastline for waterbirds.

Transportation and Accomodation

Birding will be easy especially to reach the birding spot in Bima by hiring a car that is available in Bima city. We recommend staying in Hotel around in Bima city since the birding spot is not far enough.

No.English NameScientific Name
1.Orange-footed ScrubfowlMegapodius reinwardt
2.Asian Blue QuailSynoicus chinensis
3.Red JunglefowlGallus gallus
4.Green JunglefowlGallus varius
5.Wandering Whistling-duckDendrocygna arcuata
6.Lesser Whistling-duckDendrocygna javanica
7.Pacific Black DuckAnas superciliosa
8.Sunda TealAnas gibberifrons
9.Little GrebeTachybaptus ruficollis
10.Sunda Collared-doveStreptopelia bitorquata
11.Metallic PigeonColumba vitiensis
12.Eastern Spotted DoveSpilopelia chinensis
13.Ruddy Cuckoo-doveMacropygia emiliana
14.Little Cuckoo-doveMacropygia ruficeps
15.Barred DoveGeopelia maugeus
16.Nicobar PigeonCaloenas nicobarica
17.Grey-capped Emerald DoveChalcophaps indica
18.Pink-necked Green-pigeonTreron vernans
19.Flores Green-pigeonTreron floris
20.Green Imperial-pigeonDucula aenea
21.Dark-backed Imperial-pigeonDucula lacernulata
22.Black-naped Fruit-dovePtilinopus melanospilus
23.Black-backed Fruit-dovePtilinopus cinctus
24.Large-tailed NightjarCaprimulgus macrurus
25.Savanna NightjarCaprimulgus affinis
26.Glossy SwiftletCollocalia esculenta
27.Edible-nest SwiftletAerodramus fuciphagus
28.Pacific SwiftApus pacificus
29.Lesser CoucalCentropus bengalensis
30.Western KoelEudynamys scolopaceus
31.Horsfield’s Bronze-cuckooChalcites basalis
32.Shining Bronze-cuckooChalcites lucidus
33.Brush CuckooCacomantis variolosus
34.Large Hawk-cuckooHierococcyx sparverioides
35.Oriental CuckooCuculus saturatus
36.Sunda CuckooCuculus lepidus
37.Red-legged CrakeRallina fasciata
38.White-breasted WaterhenAmaurornis phoenicurus
39.White-browed CrakeAmaurornis cinerea
40.WatercockGallicrex cinerea
41.Purple SwamphenPorphyrio porphyrio
42.Common MoorhenGallinula chloropus
43.Dusky MoorhenGallinula tenebrosa
44.Asian WoollyneckCiconia episcopus
45.Royal SpoonbillPlatalea regia
46.Yellow BitternIxobrychus sinensis
47.Cinnamon BitternIxobrychus cinnamomeus
48.Black-crowned Night-heronNycticorax nycticorax
49.Rufous Night-heronNycticorax caledonicus
50.Green-backed HeronButorides striata
51.Javan Pond-heronArdeola speciosa
52.Cattle EgretBubulcus ibis
53.Great-billed HeronArdea sumatrana
54.Purple HeronArdea purpurea
55.Great White EgretArdea alba
56.Intermediate EgretArdea intermedia
57.Little EgretEgretta garzetta
58.Pacific Reef-egretEgretta sacra
59.Australian PelicanPelecanus conspicillatus
60.Lesser FrigatebirdFregata ariel
61.Great FrigatebirdFregata minor
62.Red-footed BoobySula sula
63.Brown BoobySula leucogaster
64.Masked BoobySula dactylatra
65.Little Pied CormorantMicrocarbo melanoleucos
66.Oriental DarterAnhinga melanogaster
67.Beach Thick-kneeEsacus magnirostris
68.Black-winged StiltHimantopus himantopus
69.Grey PloverPluvialis squatarola
70.Pacific Golden PloverPluvialis fulva
71.Little Ringed PloverCharadrius dubius
72.Kentish PloverCharadrius alexandrinus
73.Javan PloverCharadrius javanicus
74.Malay PloverCharadrius peronii
75.Lesser SandploverCharadrius mongolus
76.Greater SandploverCharadrius leschenaultii
77.Greater Painted-snipeRostratula benghalensis
78.Comb-crested JacanaIrediparra gallinacea
79.WhimbrelNumenius phaeopus
80.Bar-tailed GodwitLimosa lapponica
81.Black-tailed GodwitLimosa limosa
82.Ruddy TurnstoneArenaria interpres
83.Great KnotCalidris tenuirostris
84.Broad-billed SandpiperCalidris falcinellus
85.Curlew SandpiperCalidris ferruginea
86.Long-toed StintCalidris subminuta
87.Red-necked StintCalidris ruficollis
88.SanderlingCalidris alba
89.Asian DowitcherLimnodromus semipalmatus
90.Pintail SnipeGallinago stenura
91.Swinhoe’s SnipeGallinago megala
92.Terek SandpiperXenus cinereus
93.Common SandpiperActitis hypoleucos
94.Grey-tailed TattlerTringa brevipes
95.Common GreenshankTringa nebularia
96.Common RedshankTringa totanus
97.Wood SandpiperTringa glareola
98.Marsh SandpiperTringa stagnatilis
99.Red-backed ButtonquailTurnix maculosus
100.Australian PratincoleStiltia isabella
101.Brown NoddyAnous stolidus
102.Sooty TernOnychoprion fuscatus
103.Bridled TernOnychoprion anaethetus
104.Little TernSternula albifrons
105.Common Gull-billed TernGelochelidon nilotica
106.Whiskered TernChlidonias hybrida
107.White-winged TernChlidonias leucopterus
108.Roseate TernSterna dougallii
109.Black-naped TernSterna sumatrana
110.Common TernSterna hirundo
111.Lesser Crested TernThalasseus bengalensis
112.Greater Crested TernThalasseus bergii
113.Northern BoobookNinox japonica
114.Wallace’s Scops-owlOtus silvicola
115.Moluccan Scops-owlOtus magicus
116.OspreyPandion haliaetus
117.Black-winged KiteElanus caeruleus
118.Oriental Honey-buzzardPernis ptilorhynchus
119.Pacific BazaAviceda subcristata
120.Short-toed Snake-eagleCircaetus gallicus
121.Flores Hawk-eagleNisaetus floris
122.Rufous-bellied EagleLophotriorchis kienerii
123.Bonelli’s EagleAquila fasciata
124.Chinese SparrowhawkAccipiter soloensis
125.Lesser Sundas GoshawkAccipiter sylvestris
126.Brown GoshawkAccipiter fasciatus
127.Japanese SparrowhawkAccipiter gularis
128.White-bellied Sea-eagleHaliaeetus leucogaster
129.Brahminy KiteHaliastur indus
130.Black KiteMilvus migrans
131.Blue-tailed Bee-eaterMerops philippinus
132.Rainbow Bee-eaterMerops ornatus
133.Oriental DollarbirdEurystomus orientalis
134.Oriental Dwarf-kingfisherCeyx erithaca
135.Azure KingfisherCeyx azureus
136.Common KingfisherAlcedo atthis
137.Stork-billed KingfisherPelargopsis capensis
138.White-rumped KingfisherCaridonax fulgidus
139.Collared KingfisherTodiramphus chloris
140.Sacred KingfisherTodiramphus sanctus
141.Sunda Pygmy WoodpeckerPicoides moluccensis
142.Spotted KestrelFalco moluccensis
143.Australian HobbyFalco longipennis
144.Peregrine FalconFalco peregrinus
145.Yellow-crested CockatooCacatua sulphurea
146.Scarlet-breasted LorikeetTrichoglossus forsteni
147.Red-cheeked ParrotGeoffroyus geoffroyi
148.Elegant PittaPitta elegans
149.Scaly-crowned HoneyeaterLichmera lombokia
150.Brown HoneyeaterLichmera indistincta
151.Helmeted FriarbirdPhilemon buceroides
152.Black-naped OrioleOriolus chinensis
153.Bare-throated WhistlerPachycephala nudigula
154.Rusty-breasted WhistlerPachycephala fulvotincta
155.Flores MinivetPericrocotus lansbergei
156.Black-faced CuckooshrikeCoracina novaehollandiae
157.Wallacean CuckooshrikeCoracina personata
158.Sumba CicadabirdEdolisoma dohertyi
159.White-shouldered TrillerLalage sueurii
160.White-breasted WoodswallowArtamus leucoryn
161.Brown-capped FantailRhipidura diluta
162.Wallacean DrongoDicrurus densus
163.Black-naped MonarchHypothymis azurea
164.Nusa Tenggara Paradise-flycatcherTerpsiphone floris
165.Brown ShrikeLanius cristatus
166.Long-tailed ShrikeLanius schach
167.Large-billed CrowCorvus macrorhynchos
168.Grey-headed Canary-flycatcherCulicicapa ceylonensis
169.Great TitParus major
170.Horsfield’s BushlarkMirafra javanica
171.Zitting CisticolaCisticola juncidis
172.Golden-headed CisticolaCisticola exilis
173.Australasian Reed-warblerAcrocephalus australis
174.Red-rumped SwallowCecropis daurica
175.House SwallowHirundo javanica
176.Barn SwallowHirundo rustica
177.Yellow-vented BulbulPycnonotus goiavier
178.Arctic WarblerPhylloscopus borealis
179.Kamchatka Leaf-warblerPhylloscopus examinandus
180.Mountain WarblerPhylloscopus trivirgatus
181.Russet-capped TesiaTesia everetti
182.Aberrant Bush-warblerHorornis flavolivaceus
183.Cream-browed White-eyeHeleia superciliaris
184.Yellow-spectacled White-eyeHeleia wallacei
185.Crested White-eyeHeleia dohertyi
186.Thick-billed White-eyeHeleia crassirostris
187.Mountain White-eyeZosterops montanus
188.Oriental White-eyeZosterops palpebrosus
189.Lemon-bellied White-eyeZosterops chloris
190.Tenggara Hill MynaGracula venerata
191.Short-tailed StarlingAplonis minor
192.Sunda ThrushZoothera andromedae
193.White’s ThrushZoothera aurea
194.Chestnut-backed ThrushGeokichla dohertyi
195.Chestnut-capped ThrushGeokichla interpres
196.Russet-backed Jungle-flycatcherCyornis oscillans
197.Lesser ShortwingBrachypteryx leucophris
198.Snowy-browed FlycatcherFicedula hyperythra
199.Little Pied FlycatcherFicedula westermanni
200.Pied BushchatSaxicola caprata
201.Golden-rumped FlowerpeckerDicaeum annae
202.Black-fronted FlowerpeckerDicaeum igniferum
203.Brown-throated SunbirdAnthreptes malacensis
204.Olive-backed SunbirdCinnyris jugularis
205.Flame-breasted SunbirdCinnyris solaris
206.Red AvadavatAmandava amandava
207.Black-faced MuniaLonchura molucca
208.Scaly-breasted MuniaLonchura punctulata
209.Five-coloured MuniaLonchura quinticolor
210.Pale-headed MuniaLonchura pallida
211.Timor Zebra FinchTaeniopygia guttata
212.Tawny-breasted ParrotfinchErythrura hyperythra
213.Eurasian Tree SparrowPasser montanus
214.Paddyfield PipitAnthus rufulus
215.Grey WagtailMotacilla cinerea
216.Eastern Yellow WagtailMotacilla tschutschensis
217.Matsudaira’s Storm-petrelHydrobates matsudairae
218.Streaked ShearwaterCalonectris leucomelas
219.Bulwer’s PetrelBulweria bulwerii

Fun-Birding on Bima, Sumbawa Island

Reports from Gizan Hila on his latest birding trip in Sumbawa island.

Two days birding was done on February 28th 2018 and March 1st 2018 at two locations in Sumbawa island, West Nusa Tenggara part of Lesser Sunda archipelago. This trip was more like fun birding. We enjoyed the landscape while the birds showed up to complete the panorama.

Nisa Nawi beach from Nanga Nur, Sumbawa island
  • Day One – Feb 28th 2018

We visited Nisa Wawi beach at Nanga Nur peninsula, administered in Sangia village, Sape sub-district, Bima regency. To reach this small island we had to drive for 40 minutes from Bima city (boat trip for 20 minutes from Sape harbor).

Only tamarinds which is a big tree on this island, in addition reeds, Lote trees and shrubs that grow around beaches and limestone peninsulas. Finish enjoyed the “beach watching” then we start birding on 8.00 pm, focused for owling until 10.00 pm.

  • Day Two – Mar 1st 2018

Drive west for 30 minutes from Sape harbor to reach a river which is surrounded by dense vegetation in Diwu Konca (an hour from Sultan Muhammad Salahuddin Airport) . Administered in Sari village Sape sub-district, Bima regency.

We also visited other habitats such as terraced rice fields and bamboo clusters for afternoon birding starting from 3.00 pm until 6.00 pm.

Mollucan Scops Owl from Nisa Wawi, Bima, Sumbawa island

17 participants were joining this party. Managed to see 20 bird species. Here with the highlights such as:

Mollucan Scops Owl, 5 individuals seen at Nisa Wawi

– 30 individuals White-shouldered Triller at Nisa Wawi – Golden-rumped Flowerpecker, 10 individuals seen at Diwu Konca – Two pairs of Rusty-breasted Whistler at Diwu Konca – A single Grey-capped Emerald Dove at Diwu Konca

Other notable birds included:

Scaly-breasted Munia, Black-naped Monarch, Zitting Cisticola, Blue-tailed Bee-eater, Blue-eared Kingfisher, Cave Swiftlet, Lemon-bellied White-eye, Yellow-ringed White-eye, Olive-backed Sunbird, Sooty-headed Bulbul, Collared Kingfisher, Lesser Coucal, Spotted Dove, Red Junglefowl, Long-tailed Shrike.


Halfday Birding in Tahura Raden Soeryo, East Java. February 2018

When in Malang or Surabaya you can get a pretty neat bird list just by visiting Tahura Raden Soeryo at 37 Km to the north of Malang city (90 Km to the south-west of Surabaya city), on the west slope of Mount Welirang.

If there are still days left during the holidays in Malang which is usually the main purpose is Mount Bromo, can be tried fullday or halfday birding trips in this peaceful montane forest.

Photograph Indigo Warbling Flycatcher in parking area of Watu Ondo waterfalls.

As we did on February 14, 2018 went very well with one participant from England. Our clients want to get some nice photos of endemic Indigo Warbling Flycatcher Eumyas indigo. Very easily he got it and a bonus Narcissus Flycatcher Ficedula narcissina as his lifer.

We visited three different spots around Tahura Raden Soeryo. In the morning we went to the first stop in Watu Ondo Waterfall. We were searching for birds around the parking lot surrounded by bushes and trees that were quite dense. Around the canteen did not escape from our binoculars view, this place is suitable to see the activity of birds on the top tree’s canopy and also to enjoy the view of the waterfalls. In addition we also went down the river starting from the side of the canteen. The trees around the toilet are also valuable for checking, often seen as a mix flock in this area.

Main target during this trip, Indigo Warbling Flycatcher

Low bird activity we decided to visit Cangar hot springs, stop by at the Twin Bridge but the conditions here are also the same. The trek to the Japanese cave is the main birding location in Cangar hot springs. About 400 meters long tracks surrounded by bushes and trees typical of mountain forests. In addition, the river that flows around Cangar and around the cafeteria is worth adding to the list of birds.

Highlights: – One pair of Orange-spotted Bulbul with a great view in the parking area of Watu Ondo waterfall.

Indonesia montane endemic, Orange-spotted Bulbul

– One pair of Sunda Forktail seen behind the canteen of Watu Ondo waterfall.

Record shot of Sunda Forktail, endemic to Indonesia.

– 4-6 individuals of Indigo Warbling Flycacther at the parking area of Watu Ondo waterfall.

Frontal view of Indigo Warbling Flycatcher.

– Two individuals Narcissus Flycatcher around the toilet of Watu Ondo waterfall. This species is rare visitor to Indonesia.

Our client's lifer during this trip, the rare visitor Narcissus Flycatcher

– Six individuals of Javan scimitar-babblers (recently split from Chestnut-backed scimitar-babblers by some authors) near a Japanese cave.

Recently split from Chestnut-backed scimitar-babbler by some author, Javan Scimitar Babbler

– Two pairs of Pied-shrike Babblers in front of canteen Watu Ondo waterfall. – One pair Thrilling-shrike Babbler in front of canteen Watu Ondo waterfall.

Other notable birds included:

Flame-fronted Barbet, Long-tailed Shrike, Crested-honey Buzzard, Crested Serpent Eagle, Black Eagle, Spotted Dove, Ruddy Cuckoo-dove, Pink-headed Fruitdove, Chestnut-breasted Malkoha, Cave Swiftlet, Banded Broadbill, Grey Wagtail, Javan Cuckooshrike, Sunda Minivet, Black-winged Flycatcher-shrike, Sooty-headed Bulbul, Sunda Bulbul, Lesser Shortwing, Javan Whistling Thrush, Crescent-chested Babbler, Horsfield’s Babbler, Sunda Bush Warbler, Common Tailorbird, Snowy-browed Flycatcher, Blue Nuthatch, Blood-breasted Flowerpecker, White-flanked Sunbird, Ashy Drongo.

Other Taxa:

Javan Leaf Monkey

Indonesia endemic, Javan Leaf Monkey or Javan Langur

Birding on Sumba

Sumba is part of East Nusa Tenggara, famous for its megalithic traditions, one of which is Pasola. On this island, grassland and monsoon forest are still well preserved place for various animal species. Approximately ± 200 species of birds, ± 110 species of butterflies, ± 35 species of herpetofauna and ± 23 species of mammals. In particular, Sumba island has 36 endemic species and about 14 species of islands endemic.

For birdwatchers, Lewa, Yumbu-bridge and Manurara are mandatory locations to seek endemics. In August 2017 we found a new birding site in Sumba island. In the area of the only national park on the island, named Billa. This location is better than Lewa, especially for bird-photography. Almost all endemic species are within a very close distance and can be accessed by foot. Yet, by far the best location to see Sumba Buttonquail, is the grassland around Yumbu.

The following information on the birding site in Sumba:

Billa, Praingkareha Resort

It is part of Manupeu Tana Daru and Laiwangi Wanggameti National Park, located in the southern part of the island. Administratively entered into District Tabundung East Sumba, Nusa Tenggara province. To get to Billa from Waingapu is about 4-5 hours (110 Km).

Almost all endemic species can be found (except for Sumba Buttonquail) without moving from one site to another. Paradise for bird-photographers especially in August – October when the river dries up until the remaining small pools.

All passerine like Spectacled Monarch, Sumba Brown Flycatcher, Sumba Jungle Flycatcher, Sumba Flycatcher, Orange-backed Thrush, Orange-footed Scrubfowl, Arafura Fantail, Oriental-dwarf Kingfisher, Paradise-flycatcher and Elegant Pitta Paradise will come for a drink, easy to taking a photo. On the edge of the river can be found Red-naped Fruitdove, Sumba Green Pigeon, Sumba Cicadabird.

There is a hill called Laibola, about 30 minutes from the camping area to its peak. The best location in the morning to see Billa landscape along with the rising of the Sun, the birds will start actively looking for perch such as dozens of Sumba Hornbill before the breeding period, Yellow-crested Cockatoo, Electus Parrot, Red-cheeked Parrot, Great-billed Parrot and Marigold Lorikeet.

Greater Sumba Boobook easy to find in Billa

At night, just go to the public toilet Greater Sumba boobok will sound and be easily observed along with a dozen Least Sumba Boobooks and Meesi Nightjar.


A village located in the middle of the island, still has a nice monsoon forest to see the endemics, accessible by driving from Waingapu (City center) about 1 hour 30 minutes (55 Km).

The main location consists of several sections along the connecting roads of West and East Sumba, among others: a patch of degraded forest east of Lewa at KM51 on the road, c10km west of Lewa at KM68-72; c20km south of Lewa near the village of Watumbela; and about 30km west of Lewa at KM93-98.

Elegant Pitta, endemic race of the island

The birds might be can see Sumba Green Pigeon, Elegant Pitta, Chestnut-backed Thrush, Mees’s Nightjar, Orange-crested Cockatoo, Sumba Hornbill, Pale-headed Munia, Five-coloured Munia, Barn Owl, Greater Sumba Boobook, Little Sumba Boobook, Sumba-jungle Flycatcher, Sumba Flycatcher, Sumba-brown Flycatcher.

Yumbu Grassland

This site was commonly visited for Sumba Buttonquail. An area of open savannah like grassland east of town (12km from the airport). Aim for a road bridge at Yumbu. Walked the grasslands south east of the bridge, and also briefly north of the bridge.

Access and Accommodation

The best way for you to get to all the locations in Sumba is by renting a car, because it makes it easier to reach each site. The trails can be a bit confusing so you may consider asking a local for assistance as a guide.

In Billa there are no hotels or homestays. Asking local people for stay at night or build a tent on a camping area (close with spring water and public toilet). Unlike Lewa and Yumbu, you can stay at night at Hotel in Waingapu and drive to the site in the early morning.

New Birding Site on Sumba Island DISCOVERED!

Only Sumba Buttonquail Turnix everetti and Mees’s Nightjar Caprimulgus meesi were not seen through our binoculars or lenses during the 9 days we were in Sumba. Sumba is an island in southern Indonesia, rich in various ikat weavings, vast grasslands, a strong ethnic culture and an endless list of interesting spectacles for tourists to enjoy. We came here looking for new birding spots to see the island’s endemic birds.

Depart from Juanda International Airport and transit briefly at Ngurah Rai International Airport and arrive at Umbu Mehang Kunda Airport, Waingapu, East Sumba Regency at 11:40 on 17 August. From 18 August to 22 August 2017 we attended the 2017 Birding and Photo Competition held by Manupeu Tana Daru & Laiwangi Wanggameti NP at Praingkareha resort in Billa Village, which was attended by about 55 participants from many regions in Indonesia. After the event was over, we stayed for the next 3 days and nights to watch and take documentation of the birds.

The day before the competition started, we went to Lambanapu village, 7 Km south of Waingapu for a short birding. We met with Pak Kornelis, a woven ikat craftsman who still practices in the traditional style using natural dyes. He kindly let us, with permission, go birding in his garden and rice fields, only 300 meters from his house.

Ikat weaver of Lambanapu village, East Sumba

His garden area contained many plants including Tamarind, Morinda, Kapok Randu, Indigo. We were accompanied by two teenagers, who acted as our guides. For nearly two years, the boys have been diligently documenting the local biodiversity including birds around the Village, so they are well aware of the birds that live there.

Around big Tamarind tree we observed Arafura Fantail, Broad-billed Flycatcher, Indonesian Honeyeater, Sumba Flowerpecker, Thick-billed Flowerpecker, Ashy-bellied White-eye and our main target Asian “Nusa Tenggara” Paradise-flycatcher.
Around 15:00 we continued observations from the edge of the paddy fields that were filled with shrubs along the banks of the river. We saw Pale-headed Munia, Blue-tailed Bee-eater, Scaly-breasted Munia, Pied Bush-chat, Paddyfield Pipit, Brahminy Kite and at the end of the session a few flocks of “Timor” Zebra Finch.

That night we stayed at Waingapu then on the following day along with the participants, we left for Billa using local public transport called OTO. OTO is a truck modified in such a way as to transport humans, agricultural produce and even livestock!. It was an epic form of public transportation!

The trip from Waingapu to Billa (110 km to the south) took 4 hours , including about 1.5 hours of fine asphalt road, and numerous stops along the famous Wairinding hill, and several other interesting locations to enjoy views of the picturesque Sumba landscape. The rest of the journey (2.5 hours) was along an ugly 1980s asphalt road that wasn’t in good condition at all, making the ride very bumpy and uncomfortable.

We finally arrived at Praingkareha resort, Billa Village at 15:00, and headed to a river that still runs as a small stream, with some puddles at the end of the dry season. Along the river various kinds of trees grow, the fallen leaves scattered on the rocky bottom, yet the water still flows over them.

During our stay (until 25 August 2017) the river was an ideal place to search for endemic and resident birds.

Birds that we met here such as:

Endemic Chestnut-backed Thrush , which can be found every day, sometimes perched on a branch above the river or looking for insects behind leaves and near puddles. Orange-footed Scrubfowl scavenged busily on the ground oblivious of us despite being in plain sight, from morning to afternoon. Mixed flocks of Spectacled Monarch, Arafura Fantail, Broad-billed Flycatcher often visit the river in the afternoon to bathe or drink. They all got very close to us , all the better to take photographs.

Clear view of Chestnut-backed Thrush

Sumba Brown Flycatcher, Sumba Flycatcher, Sumba Warbler (Jungle)-Flycatcher visited one by one, to perch on small branches and swoop down to catch their prey or simply wait silently on stones.

Sumba Flowerpecker were also seen eating tiny yellow fruits that grow on riverside plants. In the undergrowth, at least two individuals of Elegant Pitta were heard but trickier to catch a glimpse. Little Cuckoo-dove and Asian “Gray-capped” Emerald Dove would appear at the edges of the river to drink, and above female Pale-shouldered “Sumba” Cicadabird move from branch to branch.

We found a big dry tree that in the morning hosted many species such as Great-billed Parrot, Sumba Green-pigeon, Marigold Lorikeet, Green Imperial Pigeon, the endemic race of Yellow ‘Citron”-crested Cockatoo, Red-naped Fruit-dove and even Sumba Hornbill.

The smaller branches were observed being picked by Red-naped Fruit-dove for material to construct their nests.

Jewelry Sumba forest, Red-naped Fruit-dove | Ptilinopus doherty

We visited the Laibola hill on 20 August 2017 at around 06.00, from this location one we enjoyed a beautiful panorama of the landscape around Praingkareha resort. As the sun slowly rose the birds began actively seeking perches, and we managed to see several pairs of Electus Parrot, Red-cheeked Parrot, dozens of Slender-billed Crow and around 40 Sumba Hornbills.

Flock of Sumba Hornbills | Rhyticeros everetti from Laibola hill

Below the hill there is a forest patch, great for seeing Cinnamon Banded Kingfisher especially in the morning before 09:00 this bird can be easily located from their chirping, and seen perched quite low. From this vantage point, it is easy to find Sumba Myzomela, Apricot-breasted Sunbird, Wallacean Drongo, Ashy-bellied White-eye, Yellow-spectacled White-eye, Black-naped Fruit-dove, Helmeted Friarbird, Rusty-breasted Whistler, Short-tailed Starling. Along the forest patch we heard Elegant Pitta calling one to the other.

During our last three days in Billa, especially in the evening, we focused on finding two endemic species of boobooks. We found one only 400 meters from the camping ground, using playback techniques to discover a pair of Greater Sumba Boobook.

Couples of Greater Sumba Boobook

On the final night after observing the Greater Sumba Boobook, we searched for Little Sumba “Least” Boobook. After walking about 3 Km from the camping ground we stopped in a vast grassland, started calling, and scoped around the area. At the far end of grassland in the middle of a tree trunk, we finally saw one individual. We tried to get as close as we could and managed to get a photograph.

The bird flew into the forest so we had to follow it in, looking for the elusive critter. Surprisingly, we soon heard at least fours individuals, managing to get clear and short views better than before. At 23:30 we finished owling, and set off back to the camp.

Little Sumba "Least" Boobook

On the last day prior to Waingapu, we returned to the river. We waited on the other side of the almost dry pool, when at 08:00 an Elegant Pitta, which is usually only heard, came down from behind a bush.

The gorgeous bird started flipping leaf litter with its bill while hopping to the nearest pool. We did not stop pressing the camera shutter while sitting as still as we could behind some rocks. Finally, the bird perched on the highest rock, and in that moment we were amazed at the blend of colour all over its body.

Although we were only in Sumba for 9 days, and only visited two locations we successfully managed to spot 19 endemic species, and 43 resident species, missing only Sumba Buttonquail and Mees’s Nightjar. Although, according to the park ranger, these Lesser Sunda endemics are also present on Billa.

The bird of the last day in Billa, Elegant Pitta

We were amazed by Billa, a place to see almost all endemic Sumba by just sitting waiting by the river, or simply walking around the camp area. We called it One Stop Birding Site, the best place to photograph almost all the endemics! Hopefully we will go to Sumba again to complete the endemic list, and explore more, anyone want to join? Feel free to contact us via e-mail for information about the site and organising a tour.

Sumba Birds List (18 – 25 August 2017)

  • Orange-footed Scrubfowl | Megapodius reinwardt reinwardt
  • Green Junglefowl | Gallus varius | Heard Only
  • Eastern Spotted Dove | Spilopelia chinensis
  • Little Cuckoo-dove | Macropygia ruficepsorientalis
  • Barred Dove | Geopelia maugeus
  • Asian “Grey-capped” Emerald Dove | Chalcophaps indicaindica
  • Sumba Green-pigeon | Treron teysmannii
  • Green Imperial-pigeon | Ducula aeneapolia
  • Black-naped Fruit-dove | Ptilinopus melanospilus melanauchen
  • Red-naped Fruit-dove | Ptilinopus dohertyi
  • Savanna Nightjar | Caprimulgus affinis
  • Glossy Swiftlet | Collocalia esculenta sumbawae
  • Australian “Brush” Cuckoo | Cacomantis variolosus | Heard Only
  • Common Barn-owl | Tyto alba sumbaensis | Heard Only
  • Sumba Boobook | Ninox rudolfi
  • Least Boobook | Ninox sumbaensis
  • Oriental Honey-buzzard | Pernis ptilorhynchus orientalis
  • Brown Goshawk | Accipiter fasciatus tjendanea
  • Brahminy Kite | Haliastur indus intermedius
  • Spotted Kestrel | Falco moluccensis microbalia
  • Sumba Hornbill | Rhyticeros everetti
  • Blue-tailed Bee-eater | Merops philippinus
  • Oriental Dwarf-kingfisher | Ceyx erithaca rufidorsa
  • Common Kingfisher | Alcedo atthis floresiana
  • Collared Kingfisher | Todiramphus chloris chloris
  • Cinnamon-banded Kingfisher | Todiramphus australasia australasia
  • Yellow “Orange/Citron”-crested Cockatoo | Cacatua [sulphurea] citrinocristata
  • Marigold Lorikeet | Trichoglossus capistratusfortis
  • Eclectus Parrot | Eclectus roratuscornelia
  • Red-cheeked Parrot | Geoffroyus geoffroyi floresianus
  • Great-billed Parrot | Tanygnathus megalorynchos sumbensis
  • Elegant Pitta | Pitta elegans maria
  • Indonesian Honeyeater | Lichmera limbata
  • Helmeted Friarbird | Philemon buceroides neglectus
  • Sumba Myzomela | Myzomela dammermani
  • Rusty-breasted Whistler | Pachycephala fulvotincta fulviventris
  • Pale-shouldered (Sumba) Cicadabird | Coracina dohertyi
  • White-shouldered Triller | Lalage sueurii
  • Arafura Fantail | Rhipidura dryas sumbensis
  • Wallacean Drongo | Dicrurus densus sumbae
  • Broad-billed Flycatcher | Myiagra ruficollis ruficollis
  • Spectacled Monarch | Symposiachrus trivirgatus trivirgatus
  • Slender-billed Crow | Corvus enca
  • Large-billed Crow | Corvus macrorhynchos
  • Olive-backed Tailorbird | Orthotomus sepium | Heard Only
  • Yellow-spectacled White-eye | Heleia wallacei
  • Ashy-bellied White-eye | Zosterops citrinella
  • Short-tailed Starling | Aplonis minor
  • Chestnut-backed Thrush | Geokichla dohertyi
  • Sumba Brown Flycatcher | Muscicapa segregata
  • Sumba Jungle-flycatcher | Cyornis stresemanni
  • Sumba Flycatcher | Ficedula harterti
  • Pied Bushchat | Saxicola caprata francki
  • Thick-billed Flowerpecker | Dicaeum agile tinctum
  • Sumba Flowerpecker | Dicaeum wilhelminae
  • Apricot-breasted Sunbird | Cinnyris buettikoferi
  • Scaly-breasted Munia | Lonchura punctulata sumbae
  • Black-faced Munia | Lonchura molucca propinqua
  • Pale-headed Munia | Lonchura pallida
  • Timor Zebra Finch | Taeniopygia guttata
  • Eurasian Tree Sparrow | Passer montanus
  • Paddyfield Pipit | Anthus rufulus albidus

Half Day Birding in Malang

One of the best locations for birding in Malang area, especially to see Javas montane endemic birds is at Raden Soerjo Greater Park Forestry. Read more about the location here. This location is also listed in The 100 Best Bird Watching Sites in Southeast Asia. In July this weather in Malang, Batu and surrounding areas is great for birding, mostly sunny from morning to afternoon. Only occasionally 1-2 times there is a small and short rain in a week. Similarly, on Monday, July 17, 2017 at one birding site Raden Soerjo Greater Park Forestry named Watu Ondo.

The sun was shining brightly when we were arrived around 08.00 AM. We were greeted by 2 Indigo Flycatchers families who were nurturing their already flying chick. The immature have chest and throat spots red-pink, brown-red slices, black beak and legs.

This is surprisingly make us happy after the #Savebirdnest project several months ago and still running. After a while there was a Javan Hawk-eagle soaring above the parking area, followed by a Crested Serpent-eagle whistle then appearing above us. The presence of the two species of eagle indicates our arrival at the site late to see various types of birds, because the birds must have gone to find food. Moving ahead of the regional ticket sales counter, there was the sound of many bird species. There’s a herd of Crescent-chested Babbler and Horsfield’s Babbler on the jungle floor, then on the canopy a family of Snowy-browed Flycatchers is watching the immature descend on the pavement of the highway. Immature spotted birds brown, sliced dark brown, black beak, legs gray to brown. In the upper canopy are two species of endemic birds, a pair of Chestnut-fronted Shrike-Babbler and the Sunda Streaked Bulbul flocks that are eating the remains of fruits and insects in the leaf armpits. After the flocks of the birds disappear, return to the parking lot again. Suddenly a Lesser (Sunda) Forktail flies and lands on the ground. This bird is feeding behind the dried leaves that are around the parking lot. Not so difficult to observe and photograph this bird, just walk slowly and squat to the desired distance.

Lesser (Sunda) Forktail that is observed is male birds because it has a crown and nape of gray to black. Around the area there was Pygmy Wren-Babbler’s voice behind the thick grass. I waited a little longer but the bird did not come up with the form.

At 10:00 AM the area became deserted from the sound of birds, so we headed to the food stalls and waited for the birds to reappear. While waiting for me to try along the creek beside the stall, walk about 100 meters and then a Fulvous-breasted Woodpecker alighted on a small branch of a tree beside the river. When I take the camera that I leave at the food stall, the bird actually disappears. I went back to the food stall.

Until 11:00 AM the condition was still quiet, we were only entertained with a group of Ebony Leaf Monkey who eat young leaves in the trees around the stall. It’s easy to meet and observe Ebony Leaf Monkey around the Raden Soerjo Greater Park Forestry which is Vulnerable status according to IUCN Redlist and only exists in Indonesia.

We decided to go home when the fog began to rise and it would be difficult to photograph the birds in that situation. Back to the parking area we were greeted by a Flame-fronted Barbet who was eating. We try to get close and look at it. We are trying to take pictures but the light is not good and the fog is annoying to get good results. Finally we just took a record shot and went home.

The results are not so disappointing because we get 11 species of birds, and 5 species are endemic birds within a short time.

The Kingfishers of Baluran NP

With the large number of kingfishers (8 of 14 kingfisher in Java) in one area (we called “One Stop Birding”), making Baluran more attractive and valuable to visit, especially for birding and bird-photography.

Kingfisher has wide distribution around the world, though concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere continents, the kingfishers are well-known as fish-eaters, but despite their name, most members of this family take a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate prey. Characteristics are cartoon include a relatively large head with a long dagger-shaped bill, short legs and weak feet, in which the second and third front toes are fused at the base. Beside the unique it forms, all kingfishers has colorful feathers made this creatures are one of photogenic birds in front of lenses bird-photographer. One example, Alan McFadyen a wildlife photographer from Scotland has spent patience for six years since 2009 (about 4200 hours and produced 720 thousand photos) to get the perfect photo of Common Kingfisher.

At the end of 2016, Heru Fitriadi photographed Ruddy Kingfisher in Baluran National Park for the first time. Heru is local residents who live in the Wonorejo village, directly adjacent to the National Park. Increasingly the number of birds in Baluran National Park added from the record of Ruddy Kingfisher, as well as the number of species of kingfisher. Heru meet this bird in Bama beach while searching for Mangrove Blue Flycatcher. Did not find it, suddenly he saw a red figure perched on a branch that is not too high from the ground. Then he approached the object, and with his camera he took some portraits and eventually knows that a red figure is Ruddy Kingfisher. The next day he revisited the area again but the bird did not appears until today. Besides Ruddy Kingfisher, Baluran National Park has seven others, there are:

1. Collared Kingfisher

The most common Kingfisher on site

Undoubtedly the commonest kingfisher in Indonesia, and probably the whole of south-east Asia, this species is a familiar sight on overhead wires and telegraph poles in cities, towns and other anthropogenic habitats. In Baluran, it is almost annoyingly abundant, occupying every available habitat, although it is rarely seen in the savanna. Its raucous call, usually given from an exposed tree perch, betrays its presence throughout the day. On the coast, at low tide, is often seen perched on isolated rocks or tree stumps on mudflats, habitats shared with the somewhat similar, migratory Sacred Kingfisher.

2. Sacred Kingfisher

Regular kingfisher visitor, Sacred Kingfisher

A breeding resident of Australia, this species migrates north and west during the austral winter to New Guinea and much of Indonesia, including Java and Bali, but only occasionally reaching as far as Sumatra. In Java it is common along the coast from April to September, and in Baluran, is mainly associated with mangrove forests. It typically perches on low branches and aerial roots of mangrove trees, but also often alights on mudflats and sandy beaches, as well as moored boats and poles.

3. Cerulean Kingfisher

The endemic Cerulean or Small-blue Kingfisher

Also called Small Blue Kingfisher, this species is endemic to Indonesia, being found only from Sumatra to Sumbawa. In Baluran, it is common in coastal mangrove forests as well as fish ponds, and is often seen perched low on mangrove stilt roots or on the top of stumps or poles in the middle of ponds, from whence it dives into the water to catch aquatic invertebrates and small fish. In such open habitats, it can also be seen flying from one location to another, like a bullet travelling just above the water surface.

4. Blue-eared Kingfisher

Another small sized kingfisher on site, Blue-eared Kingfisher

This species has the largest geographical range of the local dwarf kingfishers, stretching from India to Sulawesi and Lombok. In Baluran, however, it is not an easy bird to find due to its small population and restricted distribution, apparently limited to the dense littoral forest at Bama and along Bajulmati River. Here it perches unobtrusively on horizontal branches or roots just above the water, periodically plunging into the water to spear small fish, which are then carried to another perch, bashed against the substrate until dead, then swallowed head first.

5. Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher

Eye catchy kingfisher also small sized, Oriental-dwarf Kingfisher

Ranging from Peninsular Malaysia through the Greater Sundas to Sumba, this beautiful species is one of the latest additions to the Baluran checklist. It was first found in Baluran in 2011, when one individual was seen on Curah Uling, a rain-fed river in evergreen forest, and in Manting block coastal forest. This species normally lives in the vicinity of streams and pools within lowland forest, where it feeds on aquatic insects and small fish. As with other dwarf kingfishers, while watching for prey this bird often jerkily bobs its head, while keeping the rest of the body perfectly motionless. As the Rufous-backed Kingfisher hybridizes with the more widely-distributed ‘Black-backed Kingfisher’ in several parts of its range, both are now usually treated as subspecies of a single species, the Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher (C. erithaca).

6. Banded Kingfisher

The only member of its genus, this species is unusual among kingfishers in that the female has a completely different plumage to the male. A denizen of lowland and hill forest, it ranges from Thailand through the Greater Sundas, but is generally rare in Java and entirely absent from Bali. In Baluran, it is possibly the rarest of the kingfishers, having been recorded only from the crater of Mount Baluran. It prefers undisturbed forest with a dense canopy, where it perches at a range of heights, and feeds on various grounddwelling invertebrates and lizards.

7. Javan Kingfisher

The most wanted kingfisher on region

This beautiful and most elusive kingfishers is found only on Java and Bali, yet is surprisingly common in wetlands and fields throughout these islands. Widely-distributed in Baluran, it is easiest to observe in open habitats such as paddy-fields, yet is also occurs in forest with dense canopy such as in the crater of Mount Baluran. Perching on a low branch or at the top of a pole or thatched roof of a pondok (cottage), it swoops down on its prey, which consists of eels, frogs, lizards and large insects (Mason and Jarvis 1989).

Camping and Birding in Ngungap Cliff

On 7 January 2017 my friends and I visited Ngongap cliff for camping and birding. Ngongap cliff is located in District Girisubo, Gunung Kidul regency, Yogyakarta province. Gunung Kidul landscape is hilly, known as the “Gunung Sewu” (Thousand Mountains), as well as the beautiful southern coastal region. Ngungap cliff is not a sandy beach, but a cliff of rock long, directly adjacent to the deep blue sea and the waves were malignant. Around the Ngungap cliff, green hills covered with natural vegetation and teak. Steep cliffs, blue sea and the cool breeze make this wonderful place to fill a vacation while birding.

Because there is no public transportation to the site, we use a motorbike to get there. We decided to set up tents in order not to lose many moments, both observations and the scenery. Departing at 04:00 pm, the trip takes approximately two hours from the city center to get the location. Along the way, on the right and left of the road looks green hills accompany the trip. It incredibly spoils the eyes.

Arriving at the location, we immediately set up tents in a flat spot near the cliffs. Hot coffees accompanied us for chatting and telling stories on cold nights. From a distance, we hear the night birds shout at each other. It seems Sunda Scops Owl has already started looking for prey. There was the sound of other birds that are very familiar, but not a night bird. Soon we had coffee, picked up a camera and started birding. Behind the dense bushes the sound was very loud and clear, over and over. We point the flashlight at the source of the sound, but not visible form and motion, just its sound. The dense bush blocks us to go deeper, finally we await the appearance of the owner of that sound. The sound was like a Red-legged Crake but we’re not sure because we have not seen it. After an hour we waited, and the bird did not appear. Finally, we recorded the sound for later identification.

Fishing activity around the site

The sun was rising on the eastern horizon, a red tinge gradually disappearing. Green Junglefowl heard crowing in the distance. Sooty-headed Bulbul and Yellow-vented Bulbul were seen foraging together near our camp. Our equipment set up and immediately started birding. A hill near our camp where we observed at night, into the first place to explore. From a distance, a flock of Pink-necked Green Pigeons was feeding on a tree. At shrubs below, Island Collared Dove was busy sunbathing and cleaning its feathers. About ten meters to the right, Racket-tailed Treepie foraging noisily. The last two are birds that are not often encountered in Yogyakarta.

Then we move toward a rice field area that is not too wide. We met with Javan Munia, White-capped Munia and Scaly-breasted Munia in considerable numbers, and were eating rice grains that had yellowed. Teak flowers that grow on the edge of rice fields become a favorite place for Olive-backed Sunbird and Scarlet-headed Flowerpecker. Other bird species observed in this area such as Lesser Coucal, Sunda Coucal, Long-tailed Shrike, Common Taylorbird, Plain Prinia, Javan Kingfisher, Collared Kingfisher and more.

After four hours of birding around the rice paddies we went to the cliff edge. Halfway there we met Peregrine Falcon flew past quickly and disappeared behind the hill. Around 10:00 am, we began to observe on the edge of the cliff under the blazing sun. Not long to wait, from a distance White-tailed Tropicbird fly closer to the cliffs to the west of us. These birds use the holes in the cliffs to nest and lay their eggs. It’s not difficult to see this bird, sit on the edge of a cliff while drinking coffee, these birds will be out of the nest hole and fly around the cliffs. The best time to see this bird is in the afternoon when it returns to the nest hole.

These birds will fly quite a long swirled around the cliffs before entering the nest hole. Other birds that use cliff holes for nests are the Black-nest Swiftlet and Edible-nest Swiftlet. Local residents around the coastal region will harvest these bird’s nests every year for sale. These birds also fly around the edges of the cliffs along Cave Swallow, Pacific Swallow, and House Swiflet. We also found Javan Myna and (Indonesian) Spotted Kestrel that were perched on the cliff. Birding closed with the presence of White-bellied Sea-eagle soaring long enough. Landscape and beautiful birds completes unforgettable vacation.

Menoreh Mountains, Birding in Javanese Traditional Village

Birding in this nice and beautiful scenery of Javanese traditional village, Menoreh mountains provide you a chance to see many lowland birds. The hilly landscape (300–800 meters asl) covered with an agroforestry ecosystem proves to be a good habitat for birds. If you’re in Borobudur, then facing to the south you’ll see the shape of the Menoreh mountains like a figure who sleeps in the mountains. Local residents believe that the figure is Gunadharma, the architect of Borobudur.

Menoreh Mountains are located in the northwest end of Kulon Progo district of Yogyakarta province (borders Central Java province), part of the ridge line east of the zone “oblong domes/ridges”. Birding site in the village Jatimulyo, just about an hour’s drive west of Jogja city (32 km). Also an hour’s drive south of the famous Borobudur (36 km).

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